Microphones have come a long way since their creation in the late 19th century. Today, microphones can capture sound from specific directions relative to the direction the microphone is pointed. For example, omnidirectional microphones capture sound in all directions, while “shotgun” microphones focus on one certain direction and are relatively insensitive to other directions.
What is a microphone?
Microphones are a device that is used to convert sound waves to an electric signal. These signals can be then amplified using power amplifiers and convert back to high-pressure sound waves using loudspeakers.
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Condenser microphones works similar to a capacitor. It consists of a thin membrane in close proximity to a solid metal plate
Ribbon microphones work by the same basic principle of electromagnetic induction.
A polar pattern defines how much of the signal will be picked up by the microphone from different directions.